DIRECTIONS FOR OPERATING
Double Cylinder, Simple
and Cross Compound
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Emerson -Brantingham Implement Co.,
i Iiicorpora.tE!(] )
REEVES WORKS, COLUMBUS, INDIANA
DIRECTIONS FOR OPERATING
Double Cylinder, Simple and
Cross Compound Engines
EMERSON-BRANTINGHAM IMPLEMENT COMPANY,
( Incorpoi-ated (
REEVES WORKS, COLUMBUS, INDIANA
Form A241 — 5m — 5-14
Directions for Operating Reeves
Cylinder, Simple and Cross Compound Engines
4-u- u^^ ^^^^^ *^*"^ ^^'^^ ^^'^^^ '^^ ^^^" ^^'h^" ^^^ trimming box is opened is
this book, the next thing that should be done is to carefully read it. The mar-
ginal index will help to find the subject on which information is desired.
The small and delicate trimmings, also a kit of tools are in the wooden
box, other parts are m the smoke box and in the fire box of the boiler.
All the oil holes, also holes in pipes and in the boiler are filled with a
wooden plug to keep the cinders and dust out during transportation. If
by any means a plug is missing, great care should be taken to clean out
the hole before the oil cap or fitting is attached.
In placing the steam guage, the syphon should first be filled with
water. The tube in the guage is filled with air which is cotnpre.ssed by
the water in the syphon and in time the water will absorb the air. The
tube will then be filled with water which cannot get back to the .syphon
and in Ireezmg weather will ruin the guage. Therefore, once a year before
freezing weather comes, the guage should be taken off and the water ex-
tracted ±rom it, which can be done by a motion similar to that of starting
the ink in a faulty fountain pen.
After the fixtures are all placed, the boiler can be filled so that the
water shows m one-half of the glass. Before starting the fire see that
the correct bushing is in the exhaust nozzle. The coal bushing is in place
when the engine leaves the factory. If wood or straw is used for fuel,
the bushing should be changed to the one having on it the correct marking!
If very poor coal is used, it is sometimes desirable to use the wood bushing
in the exhaust nozzle, and in case of very good wood, the coal bushing
may be used. The wood bushing can also be used when the straw is excep-
tionally good. Between the three bushings, the correct draught can be
had to suit any kind of fuel.
When the steam guage shows 10 or 15 pounds pressure, the blower
may be turned on to force the draught and after the boiler is hot and
steam is almost up to the working pressure, the tubes should be cleaned
as considerable soot adheres to them while starting the fire and getting
When firing with coal break up the lumps so that the largest piece
is about the size of a man's fist. Keep the fire not more than 5 inches
thick. When firing spread the coal on the thin places and never allow
the fire to burn out in spots, as cold air will rush into the fire box and
cool off the boiler, which will necessitate the burning of an undue amount
of fuel. Some kinds of coal will clinker when .stirred from the top, especially
if the fire is quite hot. Keep the fire clean by shaking the grates.
Keep the fire door clo.sed as much as possible, as nothing will cause
the tubes to leak as much as holding the fire door open too long when the
boiler is hot, thus allowing cold air to rush into the fire box, which will
happen especially when the engine is pulling a heavy load. The fire door
should be closed after each shovel of coal is distributed over the fire.
Control the fire by the draught door. Open it wide when getting up
steam and partially open it when engine is running. Never check the
fire by opening the fire door. Keep the ash pan cleaned out; nothing will
ruin the grates like an accumulation of ashes.
In firing with wood, keep the fire box well filled, placing the wood
so that there will be no hollow places. Open the draught door just enough
to admit air to support combustion. A great volume of air rushing through
an open fire will bring poor results.
A screen spark arrester is provided for wood and straw burning and
should be used with the cone shaped screen pointing upward. This will
afford a free outlet for the gases. When the screen is pointing downward
(the old way) it will retard the draught which will cut down the steaming
capacity of the boiler.
_ In the strawburning engine, there is a full set of grate bars furnished,
which can be used for burning coal and wood. In this case the adjustable
dead plate should be drawn back to allow the full length of the grates for
service. Long tongs are provided for handling the grates and the dead plate.
In burning straw use a grate bar in every third place, leaving a larger
space between each bar, thus allowing the matted straw ashes to be stirred
Adjust the dead plate to suit the condition of the straw and load.
The second notch from the tube sheet may be best for average conditions.
The advantage in pushing the dead plate forward is that the fire burns
from the forward end of the fire box, thus reducing the amount of flying
straws and getting the full value of the fire arch. Also when the fire
is thin, if the draught door is left wide open, there it not so much air
rushing through the fire box.
Keep the ashes from under the grates. Pull them on to the outer
ash pan where they can be made wet with hose provided for the purpose.
Scrape the tube sheet from time to time when straw ashes accumulate over
them. A scraper is provided for the purpose which is used at the peep
hole of the boiler.
If the straw is fed too fast, it will hinder combustion and less heat
will be made than if fed moderately. Only stir the fire to get the ashes
through the grates, which should only be done when necessary to clear
the fire for draught. Much stirring will cause flying straws which will
lodge across the tubes and much scraping of the tube sheet from the peep hole
will be necessary. See that the swinging door in the straw chute works
freely. After heavy firing never let cold air rush through the fire box, as
the sudden contraction of the ends of the tubes will cause them to leak.
The straw burning fire arch can be left in the fire box when burning
wood or coal. It is especially good in burning bituminous coal, as it burns
up the smoke.
Before starting the engine see that the stufling boxes are packed.
If the boxes are filled with packing, they will run with less leakage and
less friction than if a little packing is used, which will have to be drawn
up so tight that it is apt to cut the rod.
See that all grease and oil cups are filled and other parts are oiled.
Directions for operating the REEVES cylinder oil pump are attached to
the pump. There is an oil pipe in the differential gear hub which might
be neglected, especially if the gearing is enclosed in a case. An opening
in the side of the gear case is provided for this oiling. The differential
pinions which are also hid by the casing should be oiled through the same
hole in the casing.
When the gearing is incased, the teeth are apt to be neglected. A
door in the casing is provided for examination of the teeth and should
be frequently looked after. The lifetime of a bearing or gearing largely
depends on how well it is lubricated. A good way to lubricate the gear
teeth is to apply axle grease occasionally and liquid oil continuously by
means of the oil cups on top of the gear shields.
Use only a good grade of cylinder, engine and hard oil. If a cheap
grade is used, it will cost more in the end, much more of it will be required
to do the work and the results will not be as good. Use plenty of good
oil when the engine is new as it will be a paying investment.
In starting, when the cylinders are cold, go slow to allow the water to
escape from the cylinder cocks. If the engine is run at a high speed with
water in the cylinders, there is danger of breaking the cylinder or its
head. The cylinder head packing may be blown out and it is hard on all
the parts of the engine. However, the REEVES engine with its balanced
D valve, which can be driven from its seat by the water, will stand more
abuse than other types of valves.
The ideal way for maintaining the water level in the boiler is, while
the work is going on, to keep the pump or injector going continuously.
If the water is forced into the boiler at a rapid rate for a short duration
and then shut off for a time, the exhaust heater cannot do efficient work.
Both the pump and injector can be throttled by partially closing the steam
valve on the pump and the water valve on the injector. Endeavor to keep
the glass guage half full of water. Do not rely entirely on the glass guage
as the fittings may be stopped up with lime or the valves may be closed.
Blow the lower fitting out every day.
Never let the water get out of sight. When the boiler is level and
the water gets down to the lower packing gland, there is two inches of
water over the crown sheet. If it gets much lower than this, there is
danger of melting out the fusible plug. If this should happen, there is
an extra plug sent with the engine in the trimming box and should be
carried in the tool box of the engine. When a fusible plug is melted out,
it should be refilled with tin so that it will be ready for use should the
water again be left get too low. Never substitute a solid plug for the
Here are a few things which will make an injector fail to work.
Scale or dirt in either of the three jets of the injector, a leaky suction
pipe, a choked screen on the end of the suction pipe and a limed up feed
pipe where the water enters the boiler are the most common troubles.
To examine the strainer, remove the bushing where the suction pipe enters
the tank. The pump sometimes fails to start due to rust, when it has
been standing idle for a long time. In this case take off one of the heads and
break the piston loose by pushing it to the end of its stroke. Special
printed matter on the pump and injector will be found in the trimmings
box and should be preserved.
The speed of the engine can be changed about 200 revolutions by
changing the position of the weights of the REEVES Governor, which is
done from the platfoi'm of the engine. If a very special speed is required,
one of the pulleys may be made larger by wrapping it. If a higher speed
on the engine is required, make the pulley on the governor larger for a lower
speed, increase the diameter of the pulley on the crank shaft.
Always keep the throttle wide open for continuous work, allowing the
engine to be regulated by the governor and always hook up the valve gear
to get a short cut ofl^ on the valve, causing a high pressure in the cylinder,
which will insure a greater degree of expansion and better economy will
follow. To fix the reverse lever for these conditions, especially for a con-
stant load such as running a machine or doing draw bar work, hook up the
reverse lever toward the center notch till the speed begins to diminish,
then move the lever out one notch, this will bring up the speed and give
the engine sufficient power to carry the load. If more power is required
for a short while, such as going up a steep grade or plowing through a
tough piece of ground, or if the steam pressure is low, the reverse lever
can be hooked down a notch and when conditions adjust themselves, it
can be hooked up again. When the maximum power of the engine is re-
quired, the reverse lever is placed in the end notch but when economy is
expected, the load should be reduced so that the lever can be hooked up
and the closer to the center notch it is placed, the more economical on
fuel and water the engine will be.
Starting When the reverse lever is in the end notch of the section, the steam
a Load is cut off at three-fourths of the stroke. There is a blank space between
this notch and the end stop and when the lever is at the end stop, the
valve admits steam nearly the entire length of the stroke. The engine
should not be run this way for continuous work but this provision is
simply for convenience in starting a heavy load and tightening the drive
belt when the steam pressure is low. There is no dead point in the REEVES
engine when reverse lever is in the end notch nor is there when the reverse
lever is hooked up one notch.
The intercepting valve is used for converting the cross compound engine
into a simple double cylinder engine and is useful in starting the engine,
stretching the drive belt, and when extra power is needed on the road
or at the plow, especially when the steam pressure is low. This valve is
simply an emergency device to help the engine out of hard places and
should not be used for continuous work. The intercepting valve not only
gives extra power for starting but with its use, the dead points disappear
so that it starts a compound engine like our double simple engine. When
the lever controlling this valve is in the upward position the engine is com-
pound and when it is down, it is simple.
Connecting The crank box of the connecting rod has a wedge for adjustment con-
Rod trolled by a screw in the top and one in the bottom. The thick part of the
Adjustment wedge is at the bottom. The crosshead box of the rod is adjusted by
a wedge which is driven with a hammer. Undo the setscrew and drive
the wedge with a hammer and draw up the setscrew again after driving.
Always see that the boxes are loose enough to prevent heating. Usually
a box should be loose enough so that it can be moved by hand lengthwise
on its own bearing.
Crosshead The crosshead shoes are wedge-shaped and are held by bolts running
Adjustment through their sides. To adjust them, slacken up the bolts and drive the
shoes. Care should be taken to adjust the shoe which will put the piston
rod in line with the guides. A pair of calipers or a compass will aid in
doing this. The adjustment of the crosshead shoes can be checked by
watching the rod while it is running where it enters the stuffing box. If
the rod moves up and down, the crosshead is not the right height with
reference to the piston. When the shoes are adjusted correctly, the rod
will run true. See that the crosshead fits loosely in the guides by shaking it.
Boxes with The main crank shaft bearing and the valve gear boxes are adjusted
Liners by liners. Always keep enough liners between the cap and the box so that
the cap may be drawn up solid. Never depend on lock nuts to adjust the
cap, as it is more apt to wear out and heat. The valve gear connections
and the eccentric yoke should be loose enough to shake them a little by
hand, and to note if the crank .shaft box needs adjusting, the shaft will
move backward and forward if it is too lose. This can be very easily
determined by sight.
Care of The valve is balanced with a ring against the steam chest cover. There
Balanced is nothing about it to get out of order if it is properly oiled. If the engine
Valve is put away for a long time, it will be well to remove the steam chest
cover to oil the ring where it fits on the valve, also oil the valve seat and
the seat against the cover. It is also well in this case to oil the inside
of the cylinder. A heavy oil, such as cylinder oil, is very good for this
purpose. If the engine is not thus oiled when put away and if the valve
ring is stuck with rust it can be taken off and cleaned up with oil. See that
the springs are active in holding out the ring to the steam chest cover.
Another good way to get the valve in shape to have a long rest is just
before the engine is shut down for the last time, force a pint of oil through
the engine by screwing the pump plunger up by hand as quickly as possible.
This also protects the cylinder from rust.
Gaskets On a new engine the nuts on the steann chest cover, cylinder heads,
intercepting valve and on the steam pipe flanges should be drawn occa-
sionally in the first week the engine is used. ■ Never draw the nuts up
unduly tight but simply take up the shrinkage of the gasket. If the nuts
are kept tight while the gasket is being vulcanized, it will never blow out.
If it is desirable to fix a gasket so that the head, cover or fiange can be
easily removed, dress one side of the gasket with graphite. The side
thus dressed will not adhere to the metal and the other side which is not
dressed will stick and help to hold it in place.
Drain in In freezing weather, at night and when engine is not used, be sure
Freezing that all the drain cocks are open so that water cannot collect in pipes and
Weather castings. Every place that should be drained is provided with a plug. The
tanks can be drained by taking out a large plug from the pipe which
connects the tanks. To drain the main steam pipe and cylinders; Whil^
the engine is running, with the throttle wide open and all the cocks open
about the cylinders, steam chest, heater, receiver and intercepting valve,
shut off the steam by the valve on top of the dome. The steam pump and
injector should be treated in the same manner. When the engine is put
away for the winter, in addition to the foregoing, the plug in the bottom
of the boiler should be taken out to drain the water that will not run out at
the blow off pipe.
There is no advantage in blowing off the boiler when the pressure
is high, yet blowing out the water witFi 10 or 15 pounds pressure will do
no harm. The little mud in the bottom of the boiler that can be blown
out is just what is lying near the blow-ofif and can easily be washed out
when cleaning the boiler.
Clean out the boiler as often as the water demands. In ordinary
conditions, once a week is sufficient, but in case of muddy water or cleir
water which contains a great deal of foreign matter or solids, the boiler
should be cleaned more than once a week. There are places in which the
water is clear but so full of impurities that to keep the space between
the tubes and the side of the fire box from filling up, the boiler has to be
washed out every day the eng'ine is used. There are hand holes in every
place where cleaning is necessary. Also in the top of the boiler where
water can be forced through the tubes and over the crown sheet. There
is a scraper provided for removing the scales and mud and is specially
adapted to the cleaning out the sides of the fire box.
lioiler Scale If the water forms scale in the boiler, something should be used to
loosen and prevent more from forming. It is impossible to recommend a
boiler compound not knowing the nature of the water which will be used,
Soda ash is good to loosen and prevent the most common scale which is
carbonate of lime and sulphate of lime. In average conditions 5 lbs. of
soda ash to 200 gallons of water will give good results. This proportion
may answer until the results can be noted. If the inside of the boiler
presents a clean, bright surface, too much soda ash is used. If the scale
does not loosen or .still accumulates, more soda ash is required to do the
work. The inside surface of the boiler should be examined each time it is
cleaned, as the water is changed from time to time and the water taken
from the same stream changes at difi'erent seasons of the year due to
the rainfall. The ideal condition is to have on the surface a very thin
coating of lime.
Boiler The Dearborn Chemical Co., Chicago, III. will analyze water and pre-
Compound scribe a boiler compound, if a gallon of water is sent to them. In this way
a compound suited to the water and the right quantity can be used. The
U. S. Graphite Co., Saginaw, Michigan, will sell a boiler graphite that is
recommended to loosen and prevent all kinds of scale and not injure the
boiler. The precaution in the foregoing paragraph should be heeded in
using any kind of ingredients for the prevention of scale.
When cleaning out the boiler, the stack and exhaust nozzles should
occasionally be examined. The moisture which comes from the exhaust
steam causes the soot to adhere to the inside of the stack and also to the
exhaust nozzle bushings. The reduction in the openings will hinder the
draught m the case of the stack and reduce the power of the engine in the
case of the exhaust nozzles.
_ The boiler is of the water bottom type. There being no circulation
HI the part below the grates which affords an additional receptacle for all
kinds oi sediment. Thus the sides of the tire box are not so apt to be
ruined by an accumulation of .sediment which is likely to collect between
times of cleaning, especially if the water is very bad. This type of boiler
allords an air tight ash pan which is useful in holding fire all night.
The boiler being of the water bottom type will not foam except under
the most unfavorable conditions, namely, running too lung with very bad
water. There is nothing that can be put into the water to prevent foam-
ing. The only thing to do is a more frequent change of water. Hooking
up the valve gear of the engine to the limit will also help to prevent foaming,
in that it will reduce the consumption of the steam.
The eccentric is keyed to the shaft and needs no attention but should
it be necessary to reset the eccentric, it can be done by the following; Set
the engine on dead center, then the eccentric should be nearly opposite
the crank pin or at a place that will bring the pin in the lower part of the
eccentric yoke, central with the tumble or reversing shaft. To test it
more accurately, the valve or valve rod will not move when the reverse
lever is pulled backward and forward, while the engine is on dead center.
If the valve rod does thus move, the tumble shaft is either too high or too
low, more likely too high on an old engine, which can be fixed by placing
a hner between the engine frame and the rear saddle. This willraise the
crank shaft and compensate for the amount the crank shaft bearing has
been worn down and will be equivalent to lowering the tumble shaft box.
If perfect results cannot be had by placing liners under the crank shaft
bearing, this will show that the eccentric should be slightly moved The
direction it should be moved will suggest itself.
After the eccentric is found to be correctly set, all there is then
to do with the valve is to .see that it has the same amount of lead at each
end, which will be about one-sixteenth of an inch. This valve gear will
then be given an equal cut off. The lead should be looked after every few
years, as the wearing of the crank shaft box, the eccentric yoke and'valve
gear connections will change the lead so that it will have more on the one
end and less on the other end of the valve.
The reach rod which connects the reverse lever with the tumble shaft
and which controls the proportion of cut off on the forward and backward
motion may for some reason need to be adjusted. Set the reverse lever in
the end notch for the forward motion and note the maximum port opening
which the engine is turned, then place reverse lever in the other end notch
and if the port opening is not the same, on this motion, the case will suggest
if the reach rod should be shortened or lengthened. The ends of the rod
are screwed on and can be easily changed.
Keep every thing up, never allow a box to pound. If a nut or bolt is
loose, draw it up before it ruins something else. Keep the guide chain
If you find the valves slap when the engine is running without a load
and the reverse lever is in the end notch, don't imagine there is something
wrong with the valve but hook the engine up a notch or two and it will quit
The reason for this is the very long cut off will reduce the pressure in the
cylinder so that the compression or cushion is greater than the steam
pressure in the chest and therefore is not able to hold the valve up to
If the engine runs while the reverse lever is in the center notch, don't
imagine there is something wrong with the setting of the valve. If there
was, it would not thus run. The reason for this is that the boxes of the
engine run very freely and the lead of the valve hlls the clearance with
steam, the expansion of which drives the empty engine.
Test Every engine before it leaves the factory is thoroughly tested in every
respect, both under the belt and on the road. A maxnnum brake test of
four times the normal horse power is applied and an economy teat is
made on every engine, using an average load. By this means we know
for a certainty that every engine which goes from our Works is perfect
as far as it is possible to make it, and if there is something about the engine
that don't seem right, remember that it was right when it. left our Works
and likely is something out of adjustment which a competent engineer will
find if he carefully reads the directions herein given.
Directions for Setting Valves
Reeves Simple and Compound Engines
To set the valve, turn the engine on dead center. The crank
pin is on dead center when the valve rod will not move while the
reverse lever is moved. The eccentric is keyed to the shaft, there-
fore all there is to do in setting the valve is to divide the lead be-
tween each end of the valve. The lead is about one sixteenth of an
inch. The valve is set by shifting the valve on the valve stem
which is secured by clamp blocks. The valve should be loose be-
tween the blocks but have no end play.
To examine the reach rod, place the re^'ersc lever in the end
notch and by turning the engine see how much the port is opened
on each end of the valve, then reverse the motion by placing the
lever in the other end notcli and if the port opening is more or less
it can be controlled by changing the length of the reach rod.
In ease of placing a new crank shaft in the engine, the eccentric
can be set as ftillows: Place the engine on dead center by means of
a tram, and the eccentric nearly opposite the crank pin, at a point
that will l)riiig the lower pin of the eccentric yoke central with the
reversing shaft. This should be tested on both centers by moving
the reverse lever to see that there is no movement ni the valve rod
while this is done. If this cannot be accomplished by placing the
eccentric, the crank shaft may have to be raised due to WTar in the
crank shaft box. An easy way to raise the box is to place a liner
between the engine frame and the saddle. After the eccentric is
correctly sot it should be keyed to the shaft.
Reeves Works Columbus, Indiana, U. S. A.